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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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' Rise for the glory of Poland, for the return of the ancient Polish Pomorze
(the land bordering the Baltic), and for Polish Silesia, for Eastern Prussia,
for a wide outlet to the sea and for Polish frontier posts on the Oder."
A fresh point in this manifesto (vaguely referred to in previous Russian
statements) was that the Western frontier of Poland should be on the
Oder. Even the most ardent of Polish nationalists had hesitated to put
forward a claim such as this. The area as far as the river Oder bad, it is
true, long ago formed part of Poland, but in the main it had been ger-
manised. Polish aspirations on the West had not gone beyond those
territories which still possessed a fair percentage of Polish population.,
namely, Silesia on the Upper Oder, part of Pomorze (Pomerania) and
East Prussia. If Poland's frontier was to be established on the Lower
Oder., then several mil lion Germans would be within the boundaries of
Poland. Moscow's solution was * expel the Germans/ and since she had
also linked the acquisition of these territories with the loss to the Polish
Republic of her Eastern provinces, including the towns of Lwow and
Wilno, there could be no doubt but that such claims by the * Committee *
were made at the instigation of the Soviet Government. It was difficult
to expect any enthusiasm among the Poles for' compensation * of this type.
Immediately on its appearance,, the e Committee,' through the medium
of the Moscow radio, pronounced its first decrees. These included the
" assumption of Supreme Command over the Polish Army in Russia "
and its " unification with the People's Army," supposed to exist in Poland
and the creation of a " Supreme Command with General Rola-
Zymierski as the Commander-in-Chief." *
The c Committee' anticipated its future policy by claiming " full
alliance with the Soviets," and announced that " all organisations which
existed under the German occupation will be dissolved and the Fascists
persecuted within the entire strength of the law." There was an un-
masked threat to fight the Polish Underground State clearly expressed in
this manifesto.
* Zyrnierski was an ex-General of the Polish Army. His real name was Lyzwinski
but as his brother had robbed and murdered a well-known publisher in Cracow
before the last war, he had changed his name assuming one which belonged to an
old Polish family, Zymirski. In fact, he posed as a descendant of this same family
who had protested and taken the matter to court. The accused was obliged to find
another name and he eventually added a character to the one he had already
chosen and called himself ' Zymierski.* During the early days of the Great War
he fought in Pilsudski's Legions. After the outbreak of the Revolution in Russia at
the beginning of 1917* when Pilsudski turned against Austria and Germany
and was imprisoned by the latter, Zymierski enlisted in the Polish Wehrmacht
formed by the Germans. Later he was appointed a Quartermaster in the Polish
Ministry of War and in 1927, was accused of accepting a bribe from a French
firm regarding a supply of gas-masks. He was tried, round guilty, deprived of his
rank and sentenced to five years' imprisonment.
After the invasion of Poland in 1939, Zymierski escaped to Rumania, where he
endeavoured to get his case re-opened. But, although he had been close to
Sikorski during his career, the latter refused to grant his request.
The denouncements which Zymierski levelled against the leaders of the Warsaw
rising in August and September, 1944, were eloquent of this type of man.